Regardless of the interpretation of quantum mechanics we use, an exchanged particl e has a wave function existing throughout the space-time interval in which it exists, so any process involving collapse of a wave function has boundary conditions extending in principle throughout space-time, involving future prospective absorbers. Advanced entanglement becomes clear in experiments creating two entangled particles Aspect , where subsequent measurement of the polarization of one photon immediately results in the other having complementary polarization, although neither had a defined polarization beforehand.
The only way this correlation can be maintained within quantum reality is through a wave function extending back to the creation event of the pair and forward again in time to the other particle. If subjective consciousness has a complementary role to brain function, correlated with entangled, quanta emitted and absorbed by the biological brain, it is then correlated with a superposition of possible states in the brain's future, as well as having access to memories of the past.
In pair-splitting experiments, the boundary conditions do not permit a classically-causal exploitation.
This does not result in a contradiction here, because the brain state is quantum indeterminate and the conscious experience corresponding to the entangled collapse provides an intuitive 'hunch', not a causal deduction. A possible basis for the emergence of subjective consciousness, which could also be pivotal in explaining the source of free-will, is thus that the excitable cell gained a fundamental form of anticipation of threats to survival.
These cells also evolved the ability to perceive strategic opportunities, through anticipatory quantum non-locality induced by chaotic excitation of the cell membrane, in which the cell becomes both an emitter and absorber of its own excitations. Non-locality in space-time is a fundamental quantum property shared by all physical systems, including macroscopic systems with coherent resonance.
The coherent global excitations in the gamma range associated with conscious states, could thus be the 'excitons' in such a quantum model. Unlike quantum computing, which depends on not being disturbed by decoherence caused by interaction with other quanta.
Stringent requirements, avoiding decoherence, may not apply to transactions, where real particle exchange occurs even under scattering. Quantum phenomena abound in biological tissues. Entanglement has been observed in healthy tissues in quantum coherence MRI imaging and bird navigation has been suggested to use entangled electrons.
Excitations in photosynthetic antennae have also been shown to perform spatial quantum computing.
Enzyme activation energy transition states and synaptic transmission also use quantum tunneling. By making the organism sensitive to a short envelope of time, extending into the immediate future, as well as the past, subjective consciousness could thus gain an evolutionary advantage, making the organism sensitive to anticipated threats to survival as well as hunting and foraging opportunities.
It is these primary needs, guided by the nuances of hunch and familiarity, rather than formal calculations, that the central nervous systems of vertebrates have evolved to successfully handle. Such temporal anticipation need not be of causal efficacy but just provide a small statistical advantage, complemented by computational brain processes associated with learning, which edge-of-chaos wave processing is ideally positioned to do. These objectives are shared in precisely the same way by single-celled organisms and complex nervous systems. Because of the vastly longer evolutionary time since the Archaean expansion, than the Cambrian metazoan radiation, and the fact that all the components of neuronal excitability were already present when the metazoa emerged, quantum anticipation could have become an evolutionary feature of single celled eukaryot es, before metazoa evolved.
Fig 9: Expression of rhodopsin in the CNS shows both strong selective neuronal activity and a focal expression in the occipital cortex consistent with function in primary visual areas King How is it that when dreaming, or in a psychedelic reverie, we can experience ornate visions, hear entrancing music, or smell fragrances as rich, real, intense and qualitatively diverse as those of waking life?
Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system
Since the senses are actually fundamental quantum modes by which biological organisms can interact with the physical world, this raises the question whether subjective sensory experience is in some way related to the quantum modes by which the physical senses communicate with the world Joseph Clearly our senses are sensitive to the quantum level. Individual frog rod cells have been shown to respond to individual photons, the quietest sound involves movements in the inner ear of only the radius of a hydrogen atom and single molecules are sufficient to excite pheromonal receptors.
Many genes we associate with peripheral sensory transduction in several senses are also expressed in the mouse brain King at least in the form of RNA transcripts, including stomatin-like protein 3 associated with touch, epsin, otocadherin and otoferlin associated with hearing, and several types of opsin, including rhodopsin and encephalopsin.
This suggests the brain could harbour an 'internal sensory system' which might play a role in generating the 'internal model of reality', although these ideas are speculative and it is a major challenge to see how such processes could be activated reversibly in the CNS. Several researchers Pocket , McFadden have proposed that neural excitation is associated with electromagnetic fields, which might play a formative role in brain dynamics. Attention has recently been focused on biophotons as a possible basis of processing in the visual cortex based on quantum releases in mitochondrial redox reactions Rahnama et.
Microtubules have also been implicated Cifra et. All excitable cells have ion channels, which undergo conformation changes associated with voltage, and orbital or 'ligand'-binding, both of internal effectors such as G-proteins and externally via neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine. They also have osmotic and mechano-receptive activation, as in hearing, and in some species can be also activated directly and reversibly by photoreception.
Conformation changes of ion channels are capable of exchanging photons, phonons, mechano-osmotic effects and orbital perturbations, representing a form of quantum synesthesia. Fig Psychedelic and dreaming states provide conscious experiences as intense and subjectively veridical as real world sensory experiences, but with very different structure and dynamics.
What is the existential nature of subjective consciousness, from waking life, through dreaming to psychedelic and mystical experi ence, and does it have cosmological status in relation to the physical universe? The key entities forming the physical universe manifest as symmetry-broken complementarities. Quanta are waveparticles, with complementary discrete particle and continuous wave aspects. The fundamental forces are symmetry broken in a manner that results in complementary force-radiation bearing bosons and matter forming fermions.
In the standard model these have symmetry broken properties, with differing collections of particles. Supersymmetry proposes each boson has a fermion partner to balance their positive and negative energy contributions, but E8's 'bosonic' and 'fermionic' root vectors, suggest symmetry-breaking could be fundamental Fielder and King Further symmetry-broken complementarities apply to the biological world, where the dyadic sexes of complex organisms and many eukaryot es are both complementary and symmetry broken, with themes of discreteness and continuity even more obviously expressed at the level of sperm and ovum than in our highly symmetry-broken human bodily forms, involving pregnancy, live birth and lactation.
The relationship between subjective consciousness and the physical universe displays a similar complementarity, with profound symmetry breaking. The 'hard problem of consciousness research' Chalmers underlines the fundamental di fferences between subjective 'qualia' and the participatory continuity of the Cartesian theatre on the one hand, and the objective, analyzable properties of the physical world around us. Although we depend on a pragmatic accept ance of the real world, knowing we will pass out if concussed and could die if we cut our veins, from birth to death, the only veridical reality we experience is the envelope of subjective conscious experience.
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It is only through the consensual regularities of subjective consciousness that we come to know the real world and discover its natural and scientific properties. As pointed out by Indian philosophy, this suggests that mind is more fundamental than matter. The existential status of subjective consciousness thus also has a claim to cosmological status. A further cosmological interpret ation of consciousness we have noted in association with the cat paradox is that it may function to solve the problem of super-abundance, by reducing probability multiverses to the unique course of history we know and witness.
This view of consciousness in shaping the universe is consistent with several of the conclusions of biocentrism Lanza The lessons of quantum and fundamental particle complement arity and symmetry-breaking, sexuality and the Yin-Yang complementarity of the Tao and of Shakti-Shiva in Tantric mind-world cosmologies, lead to a cosmology of consciousness, as symmetry-broken complement to the physical universe. References Ananthaswamy, A. Ananthaswamy, A. Aspect, A.
Baars, B. Basar E. Brain Dynamics Springer-Verlag, Beggs J, Plenz D. Bernroider, G. Crick F, Koch C. Darwin C. Hauser M. Joseph, R. The neuroanatomy of free will. Loss of will, against the will, "alien hand". Journal of Cosmology, 14, While the effect of TRS breaking dynamics in the context of quantum walks has not been investigated, it has been studied intensely in the condensed matter literature.
These investigations range from the very early work of Peierls 11 , through the famous examples of the Hofstadter butterfly 12 and the Quantum Hall 13 effect, up to recent research on TRS breaking in topological insulators 14 and on artificial gauge fields in optical lattice potentials In contrast to the present study, these works always concentrated on many-body dynamics in regular lattices, while in the context of quantum walks, one is instead interested in characteristically different scenarios: e.
The examples we study are from a variety of modern research topics e. To demonstrate the effect of TRS breaking, we chose five examples which illustrate the main ideas of directionality, suppression and enhancement of transport. The first example is a unitary quantum switch where the phase, that is the time reversal asymmetry parameter, controls the direction of quantum transport. In connection with this, we also demonstrate complete suppression of chiral quantum walks on loops with an even number of sites.amcolanto.tk
Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system
Although this naturally occurring system is highly efficient, we find that the introduction of chiral terms allows for an enhancement of transport speed by 7. It has recently been shown that the effect does appear in similar light harvesting complexes Finally, to investigate the robustness of the effect of TRS breaking on transport, we consider randomly generated small-world networks.
In the standard literature on continuous time quantum walks 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , the time-independent walk Hamiltonian is defined by a real weighted adjacency matrix J of an underlying undirected graph, The condition that the hopping weights J nm are real numbers implies that the induced transitions between two sites are symmetric under time inversion. We can break this symmetry while maintaining the hermitian property of the operator by appending a complex phase to an edge: resulting in a continuous time chiral quantum walk CQW governed by When acting on the single exciton subspace, the Hamiltonian given in Eq.
We explore a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of this effect in Supplementary Information , Section S2. In the CQW framework, we investigate coherent quantum dynamics and incoherent dynamics within the Markov approximation. Note that the present study, while utilizing open system dynamics, is not related to the enhancement of transport due to quantum noise 21 , 22 which has been well studied in the context of photosynthesis 22 , Here the emphasis is instead on the effect the breaking time-reversal symmetry of the Hamiltonian dynamics can have on transport.
We now introduce a quantum switch which enables directed transport and could, in principle, be used to create a logic gate and offer future implementations of transport devices to store and process energy and information. Figure 1 presents an example of this switch. When considering traps in the Lindbladian evolution, the optimal transport efficiency is When starting at site E , the particle evolves towards site F.
Kibble-Zurek dynamics in an array of coupled binary Bose condensates
This has the same effect as reflecting the configuration horizontally across the page while leaving the site labels intact. We will now utilize the directional biasing of the triangle to give an example of a speed-up of chiral walks. Using the composition of eight triangular switches as depicted in Figure 2a , by simultaneously varying all phases along the red control edges to the same value, we examine the effect of time-reversal asymmetry on transport.
Unlike the occupation probability maxima in the switch, here the first apexes are separated in time. To conclude this section we focus on suppression of transport by chiral quantum walks.