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World's Biggest Optical Telescope - ELT

Subsequent activities included receiving and integrating the FTTS. With the arrival and assembly of the Enclosure, the last component of the UT was ready for integration on a dedicated concrete pier. Specialized equipment was used for the final integration of the UT, and for transportation to its final location on the array where SAT for the UT took place.

Posters: Observing Techniques. The non-redundant aperture masking techniques transforms telescope into a Fizeau interferometer by a simple action of placing an aperture mask over the pupil, the limited resolution set by atmospheric fluctuations can be overcome by closure phase techniques to obtain diffraction-limited images.

Top astronomer on the challenges of building the world’s largest telescope, and what’s next

For binary stars, the closure phases can not only eliminate the influence of atmospheric fluctuations on ground-based optical telescope, but also have a functional relationship with contrast and angular separation of binary stars. In this paper, basing on the mathematical model of non-redundant aperture masking detecting binary stars, we carry out the computer simulation and laboratory experiment by using the Golay-6 mask.

We present a method that combines the respective benefits of ground-based telescopes e. PSF stability via simultaneous observations. Posters: Future of Interferometry. Poster presentation guidelines are available online. Can telescopes with elongated pupils achieve higher contrast and resolution? We explore the advantages of telescopes with a non-circular, elongated pupil. We simulate images for a circular- and elongated-pupil telescopes of equal aperture area, and measure the contrast for detection of faint companions around bright stars as a function of angular separation. This design gives better contrast at lower separation for diffraction-limited images for perfect and imperfect optics , compared to a circular-pupil telescope.

Tuesday 12 June Show All Abstracts.

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Tuesday Plenary Session. Session 4: Techniques I. Masking interferometry at old enough to mellow on redundancy? The year marks the th anniversary of Fizeau's celebrated paper which first suggested the idea of harnessing the then-infant technology of interferometry in the service of astrophysical measurement. This took the form of a mask, to be placed over the entrance pupil of a telescope to create what we would now term a Fizeau Interferometer. The experiment was successfully performed at Marseilles a few years later. Despite its antiquity, this deceptively simple idea is still with us and thriving beyond reasonable expectations today: an aperture mask that would be recognisable to Fizeau will fly aboard the James Webb Space Telescope.

This paper highlights remarkable results at the very finest angular scales still being delivered by this technique, and prospects for future innovations on Fizeau's idea that may well extend the winning streak well into the future. In particular, the idea of strict non-redundancy usually enforced in the layout of masking arrays is subject to scrutiny.

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Sparse Aperture Masking SAM allows for high-contrast imaging at small inner working angles, however the performance is limited by the small throughput and the number of baselines. We present the concept and first lab results of Holographic Aperture Masking HAM where we multiplex subapertures using holographic techniques enabled by extreme liquid-crystal geometric phase patterns. This technology gives enormous freedom to redistribute the light in the image plane to form arbitrary interferometer configurations while meeting criteria such as lowering redundancy noise, improved uv-coverage, better throughput and improved calibration as compared to SAM, at the cost of detector space.

Hi-5 is a high-contrast or high dynamic range infrared imager project for the VLTI. Its main goal is to characterize young extra-solar planetary systems and exozodiacal dust around southern main-sequence stars. In this paper, we present an update of the project and key technology pathways to improve the contrast achieved by the VLTI. In particular, we discuss the possibility to use integrated optics, proven in the near-infrared, in the thermal near-infrared L and M bands, microns and advanced fringe tracking strategies. We also address the strong exoplanet science case young exoplanets, planet formation, and exozodiacal disks offered by this wavelength regime as well as other possible science cases such as stellar physics fundamental parameters and multiplicity and extragalactic astrophysics active galactic nuclei and fundamental constants.

Synergies and scientific preparation for other potential future instruments such as the Planet Formation Imager are also briefly dis. With thousands of exoplanets discovered one of the important next steps in astronomy is their characterisation. This presents a great challenge as it requires both high angular resolution and high contrast in order to efficiently separate the bright light of a star to that of a faint planet.

One approach is nulling interferometry where the starlight is canceled out by destructive interference. A telescope aperture is sub-divided and re-imaged into a photonic chip wherein the interference take place. This is done by a unique active system that optimises the injection and provide low order correction for the atmospheric turbulence. Session 5: Techniques II. Mid-infrared interferometry with MATISSE will allow significant advances in various fundamental research fields: studies of disks around young stellar objects where planets form and evolve, surface structures and mass loss of stars in late evolutionary stages, and the environments of black holes in active galactic nuclei.

What is interference?

In this article, we remind the main science objectives that have driven the instrument design. We recall the physical concept of MATISSE including a description of the signal on the detectors and an evaluation of the expected performance on sky and discuss the project status : the instrument is currently being reassembled and installed in the VLTI focal Laboratory and will be in its Commissioning phase during the period of the SPIE conference.

A modern implementation of a stellar intensity interferometry SII system on an array of large optical telescopes would be a highly valuable complement to the current generation of optical amplitude interferometers. We describe a complete SII system that is used to measure the spatial coherence of a laboratory source which exhibits signal to noise ratios comparable to actual stellar sources. A novel analysis method, based on the correlation measurements between orthogonal polarization states, was developed to remove unwanted effects of spurious correlations.

Since its completion in , the instrument has been used to take engineering data of bright stars. This paper will discuss the data collection and analysis methods, as well as the progress toward reliably measuring a significant stellar photon correlation at short baselines. The Southern Connecticut Stellar Interferometer SCSI is a two-telescope astronomical intensity interferometer that was completed in June and has been taking photon correlation data since that time.

It uses single-photon avalanche diode SPAD detectors at the telescope focal plane and a central timing module, which records the signals from both telescopes simultaneously. In this paper, we report on the current state of the instrument, including engineering tests made in preparation for wireless operation, and we discuss the expected capabilities in that mode. Session 6: Techniques III. Speckle imaging produces diffraction-limited images from ground-based telescopes. Recent advancements in detectors such as electron-multiplying CCDs EMCCDs , have spawned a resurgence of this technique, greatly improving sensitivity and observing efficiency.

The high angular resolution provided by speckle imaging can discern blended binary system contamination and validate suspected exoplanets discovered by the Kepler and K2 transit surveys. High-resolution follow-up will also be required for upcoming missions including the TESS.

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Multiplicity can be determined along with separation, position angle, photometry, and contrast ratio. Some of the developments leading to this technique will be discussed in conjunction with recent significant papers, ongoing speckle imaging programs, and prospects for the future. Recent work with the NESSI speckle camera at Kitt Peak and the 'Alopeke speckle camera at Gemini-North indicates that speckle data reduction techniques can be successfully modified to produce high-resolution images over fields that are at least tens of arc seconds across.

While these wide-field speckle image reconstructions are not diffraction-limited, the improvement in resolution over the seeing-limited case can be substantial. In this paper, we explore the application of these techniques to data taken with a small 0. Many telescopes located in urban communities, such as New Haven, Connecticut, where Southern Connecticut State University resides, have limited use scientifically due to substantial light pollution, poor seeing, poor telescope tracking, and other issues. We will present initial data using our set-up and discuss the potential for this approach for improving the imaging capabilities of small telescopes on our campus and beyond.

Accurate fringe tracking is essential for sensitive long-wavelength thermal background limited operation of the current VLTI and future PFI facilities. We present and simulate a dual fringe tracking and low-order adaptive optics concept based on a combination of non-redundant aperture interferometry and eigenphase in asymmetric pupil wavefront sensing.

How do interferometers work? - Explain that Stuff

This scheme can acquire fringes at many wavelengths of path length offset between telescopes, even with moderate tilt offset and pupil shifts between beams. Once locked to fringes, our technique can also be used for simultaneous low-order wavefront sensing, and has near-optimum sensitivity where there is a dominant point-source image component. Posters: Data processing, Analysis, Access, and Discovery.

The interactive poster session with authors in attendance will be Tuesday evening from to PM.

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In this work, we introduce an image enhancement method ideally suited for the visualization of coronal intensity images. The steep radial gradient of the coronal brightness is adjusted by normalising the coronal image with the Fourier approximation of its local average. A method based on deconvolution and localised normalising of the data at many different spatial scales is used to further enhance the fine structures, and a wavelet shrinkage denoising method is used for noise suppression.

The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated on a series of images observed by various instruments including spacial and earth-based coronagraphs as well as photos during total solar eclipse. This method is very helpful for qualitative analysis of solar coronal structures that are mostly invisible on original images. DSSI observes speckle patterns simultaneously at two separate wavelengths, allowing color measurements of the components of a binary system to be made in a single observation. This paper will describe the initial data gathering process, which began in Since then, over stars have been observed.

These changes in simulation parameters reflected a variation in the coronagraphic performance. We analysed the results after the post processing was applied as function of the Strehl Ratio condition to obtain some mass and age limits for the detection of the planets. We recently used archival and newly obtained data from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer to measure the fundamental properties of 87 stars. The sample consisted of 5 dwarfs, 3 subgiants, 69 giants, 3 bright giants, and 7 supergiants, and spanned a wide range of spectral classes from B to M.

We combined our angular diameters with photometric and distance information from the literature to determine each star's physical radius, effective temperature, bolometric flux, luminosity, mass, and age. Several dozen of the stars have visibility curves sampled down to the first null, where the visibilities drop to zero.

Here we present preliminary results showing limb-darkening fits for the five zero crossing stars that have the best coverage of the second lobe.

pierreducalvet.ca/88375.php Binary star systems where one of the stars is an exoplanet host appear to be more common than expected prior to the Kepler mission. KOIs with stellar companions and at least one suspected exoplanet were selected for this work. Recent work on these stars has mainly focused on placing the companions on the H-R diagram and inferring if they are likely to be gravitationally bound based on whether their locations are consistent with a common isochrone.

However, we have been observing these KOI double stars with speckle imaging over several years and are now in a position to assess whether these systems have components with a common proper motion, and can be seen as physically associated on that basis. We will discuss and give sample results of KOI double stars that are in fact common proper motion pairs. We compare. Interferometry provides the only practicable way to image satellites in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit GEO with sub-meter resolution. In parallel, we are investigating the resolution and imaging fidelity that is achievable with larger numbers of telescopes.

We present a new algorithm to be used for extraction of circumstellar discs from direct imagining observations. The underlying mechanism of this algorithm is Common Spatial Pattern filtering, a technique commonly found in fields outside astronomy. It is a method used to maximize the difference between two sets of data.

We employ this by using distributing the disc signal in different locations, employing Angular Differential Imaging. By generating the difference, we can reconstruct the circumstellar disc in post-processing with limited speckle noise.